History Of Decompilation 2

Program-Transformation.Org: The Program Transformation Wiki

History of Decompilation (1980-1999)

See also On the Inverse of Compiling, April 1980.

Zebra, 1981

The Zebra prototype was developed at the Naval Underwater Systems Centre in an attempt to achieve portability of assembler programs. Zebra took as input a subset of the ULTRA/32 assembler, called AN/UYK-7, and produced assembler for the PDP11/70. The project was described by D.L.Brinkley in [ Brin81 ].

The Zebra decompiler was composed of 3 passes: a lexical and flow analysis pass, which parsed the program and performed control flow analysis in the graph of basic blocks. The second pass was concerned with the translation of the program to an intermediate form, and the third pass simplified the intermediate representation by eliminating extraneous loads and stores, in much the same way described by Housel [ Hous73 , Hous73b ]. It was concluded that it was hard to capture the semantics of the program and that decompilationwas economically impractical, but it could aid in the transportation process.

This project made use of known technology to develop a decompiler of assembler programs. No new concepts were introduced by this research, but it raised the point that decompilation is to be used as a tool to aid in the solution of a problem, but not as tool that will give all solutions to the problem, given that a 100% correct decompiler cannot be built.

Decompilation of DML programs, 1982

A decompiler of database code was designed to convert a subset of Codasyl DML programs, written with procedural operations, into a relational system with a nonprocedural query specification. An Access Path Model is introduced to interpret the semantic accesses performed by the program. In order to determine how FIND operations implement semantic accesses, a global data flow reaching analysis is performed on the control flow graph, and operations are matched to templates. The final graph structures are remapped into a relational structure. This method depends on the logical order of the objects and a standard ordering of the DML statements [ Katz82 ].

Another decompiler of database code was proposed to decompile well-coded application programs into a proposed semantic representation is described in [ Dors82 ]. This work was induced by changes in the use requirements of a Database Management System (DBMS), where application programs were written in Cobol-DML. A decompiler of Cobol-DML programs was written to analyse and convert application programs into a model and schema-independent representation. This representation was later modified or restructured to account for database changes. Language templates were used to match against key instructions of a Cobol-DML programs.

In the context of databases, decompilation is viewed as the process of grouping a sequence of statements which represent a query into another (nonprocedural) specification. Data flow analysis is required, but all other stages of a decompiler are not implemented for this type of application.

Forth Decompiler, 1982, 1984

A recursive Forth decompiler is a tool that scans through a compiled dictionary entry and decompiles words into primitives and addresses [ Dudl82 ]. Such a decompiler is considered one of the most useful tools in the Forth toolbox [ Hill84 ]. The decompiler implements a recursive descent parser so that decompiled words can be decompiled in a recursive fashion.

These works present a deparsing tool rather than a decompiler. The tool recursively scans through a dictionary table and returns the primitives or addresses associated with a given word.

Dataflex Decompilers, 1984

DataFlex is a macro-based language. Some macros include over 80 DataFlex commands in one macro command. The Database Managers company Dataflex Decompilers have the capability of recovering the highest-level macro command instead of the low-level commands that compose such a macro. The techniques used in this decompiler include pattern matching and the recovery of control structures such as if's and loops. The generated code is functionally equivalent to the original source and is guaranteed to be recompilable without changes.

Software Transport System, 1985

C.W.Yoo describes an automatic Software Transport System (STS) that moves assembler code from one machine to another. The process involves the decompilation of an assembler program for machine m1 to a high-level language, and the compilation of this program in a machine m2 to assembler. An experimental decompiler was developed on the Intel 8080 architecture; it took as input assembler programs and produced PL/M programs. The recompiled PL/M programs were up to 23% more efficient than their assembler counterpart. An experimental STS was developed to develop a C cross-compiler for the Z-80 processor. The project encountered problems in the lack of data type in the STS [ Woo85 ].

The STS took as input an assembler program for machine m1 and an assembler grammar for machine m2, and produced an assembler program for machine m2. The input grammar was parsed and produced tables used by the abstract syntax tree parser to parse the input assembler program and generate an abstract syntax tree (AST) of the program. This AST was the input to the decompiler, which then performed control and data flow analyses, in much the same way described by Hollander [ Holl73 ], Friedman [ Frie74 ], and Barbe [ Barb74 ], and finally generated high-level code. The high-level language was then compiled for machine m2.

This work does not present any new research into the decompilation area, but it does present a novel approach to the transportation of assembler programs by means of a grammar describing the assembler instructions of the target architecture.

Decomp, 1988

See DecompDecompiler for information about a decompiler for the Vax BSD 4.2 which took as input object files, and produced C-like programs.

FermaT, 1989 to present

Martin Ward's PhD thesis [ War89 ] is about formal, provable program transformations. He has written a program transformation engine called FermaT which facilitates forward and reverse engineering from assembly language to specifications and back again. The technology is marketed through the company SoftwareMigrations. Real-world decompilation of assembly language programs (such as IBM-370 assembler) to C [ War99 ] and COBOL have been performed, and recently from 80186 assembly language to C [ SML03 ].

exe2c, 1990

The Austin Code Works sponsored the development of the exe2c decompiler, targetted at the PC compatible family of computers running the DOS operating system [ Aust91 ]. The project was announced in April 1990 [ Guth90 ], tested by about 20 people, and it was decided that it needed some more work to decompile in C. A year later, the project reached a beta operational level [ Guth91a ], but was never finished [ Guth91b ]. I (Cristina Cifuentes) was a beta tester of this release.

exe2c is a multipass decompiler that consists of 3 programs: e2a, a2aparse, and e2c. e2a is the disassembler. It converts executable files to assembler, and produces a commented assembler listing as well. e2aparse is the assembler to C front-end processor, which analyzes the assembler file produced by e2a and generates .cod and .glb files. Finally, the e2c program translates the files prepared by a2aparse and generates pseudo-C. An integrated environment, envmnu, is also provided.

Programs decompiled by exe2c make use of a header file that defines registers, types and macros. The output C programs are hard to understand because they rely on registers and condition codes (represented by Boolean variables). Normally, one machine instruction is decompiled into one or more C instructions that perform the required operation on registers, and set up condition codes if required by the instruction. Expressions and arguments to subroutines are not determined, and a local stack is used for the final C programs. It is obvious from this output code that a data flow analysis was not implemented in exe2c. This decompiler has implemented a control flow analysis stage; looping and conditional constructs are available. The choice of control constructs is generally adequate. Case tables are not detected correctly, though. The number and type of procedures decompiled shows that all library routines, and compiler start-up code and runtime support routines found in the program are decompiled. The nature of these routines is normally low-level, as they are normally written in assembler. These routines are hard to decompile as, in most cases, there is no high-level counterpart (unless it is low-level type C code).

This decompiler is a first effort in many years to decompile executable files. The results show that a data flow analysis and heuristics are required to produce better C code. Also, a mechanism to skip all extraneous code introduced by the compiler and to detect library subroutines would be beneficial.

PLM-80 Decompiler, 1991

The Information Technology Division of the Australian Department of Defence researched into decompilation for defence applications, such as maintenance of obsolete code, production of scientific and technical intelligence, and assessment of systems for hazards to safety or security. This work was described by S.T. Hood in [ Hood91 ].

Techniques for the construction of decompilers using definite-clause grammars, an extension of context-free grammars, in a Prolog environment are described. A Prolog database is used to store the initial assembler code and the recognised syntactic structures of the grammar. A prototype decompiler for Intel 8085 assembler programs compiled by a PLM-80 compiler was written in Prolog. The decompiler produced target programs in Small-C, a subset of the C language. The definite-clause grammar given in this report was capable of recognizing if-then control structures, and while loops, as well as static (global) and automatic (local) variables of simple types (i.e. character, integers, and longs). A graphical user interface was written to display the assembler and pseudo-C programs, and to enable the user to assign variable names, and comments. This interface also asked the user for the entry point to the main program, and allowed him to select the control construct to be recognized.

The analysis performed by this decompiler is limited to the recognition of control structures and simple data types. No analysis on the use of registers is done or mentioned. Automatic variables are represented by an indexed variable that represents the stack. The graphical interface helps the user document the decompiled program by means of comments and meaningful variable names. This analysis does not support optimized code.

J. O'Gorman PhD thesis, 1991

The Systematic Decompilation thesis by John O'Gorman [ OGor91 ], University of Limerick, describes a pattern matching technique used for decompiling VAX binaries into Pascal source code. The technique requires the availability of the compiler used, performs a coverage of constructs available in the language, and creates small test programs that use the constructs, in order to derive the patterns of machine code used for each high-level construct. When decompiling a Pascal executable, the patterns are matched to determine which Pascal construct to recreated. Unoptimized code is used.

The thesis is available for downloading (ftp) in postscript format: ftp://www.csis.ul.ie/techrpts/ul-91-12.ps.

Decompiler compiler, 1991-1994

A decompiler compiler is a tool that takes as input a compiler specification and the corresponding portions of object code, and returns the code for a decompiler; i.e. it is an automatic way of generating decompilers, much in the same way that yacc is used to generate compilers [ Bowe91a, Bowe91b, Breu94 ].

Two approaches are described to generate such a decompiler compiler: a logic and a functional programming approach. The former approach makes use of the bidirectionality of logic programming languages such as Prolog, and runs the specification of the compiler backwards to obtain a decompiler [Bowe91a, Bowe91b, Bowe93b]. In theory this is correct, but in practice this approach is limited to the implementation of the Prolog interpreter, and therefore problems of strictness and reversibility are encountered [ Breu92, Breu93 ]. The latter approach is based on the logic approach but makes use of lazy functional programming languages like Haskell, to generate a more efficient decompiler [ aBowe91a, Bowe91b, Bowe93b ]. Even if a non-lazy functional language is to be used, laziness can be simulated in the form of objects rather than lists.

The decompiler produced by a decompiler compiler will take as input object code and return a list of source codes that can be compiled to the given object code. In order to achieve this, an enumeration of all possible source codes would be required, given a description of an arbitrary inherited attribute grammar. It is proved that such an enumeration is equivalent to the Halting Problem [ Breu92, Breu93 ], and is therefore non-computable. Even further, there is no computable method which takes an attribute grammar description and decides whether or not the compiled code will give a terminating enumeration for a given value of the attribute [ Breu92, Breu93 ], so it is not straightforward which grammars can be used. Therefore, the class of grammars acceptable to this method needs to be restricted to those that produce a complete enumeration, such as non left-recursive grammars.

An implementation of this method was firstly done for a subset of an Occam-like language using a functional programming language. The decompiler grammar was an inherited attribute grammar which took the intended object code as an argument [ Breu92, Breu93 ]. A Prolog decompiler was also described based on the compiler specification. This decompiler applied the clauses of the compiler in a selective and ordered way, so that the problem of non-termination would not be met, and only a subset of the source code programs would be returned (rather than an infinite list) [ Bowe91c, Bowe93 ]. Recently, this method made use of an imperative programming language, C++, due to the inefficiencies of the functional and logic approach. In this prototype, C++ object's were used as lazy lists, and a set of library functions was written to implement the operators of the intermediate representation used [ Breu94 ]. Problems with optimized code have been detected.

As illustrated by this research, decompiler compilers can be constructed automatically if the set of compiler specifications and object code produced for each clause of the specification is known. In general, this is not the case as compiler writers do not disclose their compiler specifications. Only customized compilers and decompilers can be built by this method. It is also noted that optimizations produced by the optimization stage of a compiler are not handled by this method, and that real executable programs cannot be decompiled by the decompilers generated by the method described. The problem of separating instructions from data is not addressed, nor is the problem of determining the data types of variables used in the executable program. In conclusion, decompiler compilers can be generated automatically if the object code produced by a compiler is known, but the generated decompilers cannot decompile arbitrary executable programs.

8086 C Decompiling System, 1991-1993

This decompiler takes as input executable files from a DOS environment and produces C programs. The input files need to be compiled with Microsoft C version 5.0 in the small memory model [ Fuan93 ]. Five phases were described: recognition of library functions, symbolic execution, recognition of data types, program transformation, and C code generation. The recognition of library functions and intermediate language was further described in [ Fuan91, Hung91 ].

The recognition of library functions for Microsoft C was done to eliminate subroutines that were part of a library, and therefore produce C code for only the user routines. A table of C library functions is built-into the decompiling system. For each library function, its name, characteristic code (sequence of instructions that distinguish this function from any other function), number of instructions in the characteristic code, and method to recognize the function were stored. This was done manually by the decompiler writer. The symbolic execution translated machine instructions to intermediate instructions, and represented each instruction in terms of its symbolic contents. The recognition of data types is done by a set of rules for the collection of information on different data types and analysis rules to determine the data type in use. The program transformation transforms storage calculation into address expressions, e.g. array addressing. Finally, the C code generator transforms the program structure by finding control structures, and generates C code.

8086C seems to be based on a Unix/68000 decompiler called 68000C [ Zong88 ]. See also DECLER.

This decompiling system makes use of library function recognition to generate more readable C programs. The method of library recognition is hand-crafted, and therefore inefficient if other versions of the compiler, other memory models, or other compilers were used to compile the original programs. The recognition of data types is a first attempt to recognize types of arrays, pointers and structures, but not much detail is given in the paper. No description is given as to how an address expression is reached in the intermediate code, and no examples are given to show the quality of the final C programs.

Alpha AXP Migration Tools, 1993

When Digital Equipment Corporation designed the Alpha AXP architecture, the AXP team got involved in a project to run existing VAX and MIPS code on the new Alpha AXP computers. They opted for a binary translator which would convert a sequence of instructions of the old architecture into a sequence of instructions of the new architecture. The process needed to be fully automatic and to cater for code created or modified during execution. Two parts to the migration process were defined: a binary translation, and a runtime environment [ Site93 ].

The binary translation phase took binary programs and translated them into AXP opcodes. It made use of decompilation techniques to understand the underlying meaning of the machine instructions. Condition code usage analysis was performed as these conditions do not exist on the Alpha architecture. The code was also analyzed to determine function return values and find bugs (e.g. uninitialized variables). MIPS has standard library routines which are embedded in the binary program. In this case, a pattern matching algorithm was used to detect routines that were library routines, such routines were not analysed but replaced by their name. Idioms were also found and replaced by an optimal instruction sequence. Finally, code was generated in the form of AXP opcodes. The new binary file had both, the new code and the old code.

The runtime environment executes the translated code and acts as a bridge between the new and old operating systems (e.g. different calling standards, exception handling). It had a built-in interpreter of old code to run old code not discovered or nonexistent at translation time. This was possible because the old code was also saved as part of the new binary file.

Two binary translators were written: VEST, to translate from the OpenVMS VAX system to the OpenVMS AXP system, and mx, to translate ULTRIX MIPS images to DEC OSF/1 AXP images. The runtime environments for these translators were TIE and mxr respectively.

This project illustrates the use of decompilation techniques in a modern translation system. It proved successful for a large class of binary programs. Some of the programs that could not be translated were programs that were technically infeasible to translate, such as programs that use privileged opcodes, or run with superuser privileges.

Source/PROM Comparator, 1993

A tool to demonstrate the equivalence of source code and PROM contents was developed at the Nuclear Electric plc, UK, to verify the correct translation of PL/M-86 programs into PROM programs executed by safety critical computer controlled systems [ Pave93 ].

Three stages are identified: the reconstitution of object code files from the PROM files, the disassembly of object code to an assembler-like form with help from a name-table built up from the source code, and decompilation of assembler programs and comparison with the original source code. In the decompiling stage, it was noted that it was necessary to eliminate intermediate jumps, registers and stack operations, identify procedure arguments, resolve indexes of structures, arrays and pointers, and convert the expresssions to a normal form. In order to compare the original program and the decompiled program, an intermediate language was used. The source program was translated to this language with the use of a commercial product, and the output of the decompilation stage was written in the same language. The project proved to be a practical way of verifying the correctness of translated code, and to demonstrate that the tools used to create the programs (compiler, linker, optimizer) behave reliably for the particular safety system analyzed.

This project describes a use of decompilation techniques, to help demonstrate the equivalence of high-level and low-level code in a safety-critical system. The decompilation stage performs much of the analysis, with help from a symbol table constructed from the original source program. The task is simplified by the knowledge of the compiler used to compile the high-level programs.

Cristina Cifuentes' PhD Thesis "Reverse Compilation Techniques", 1994

Considered by some to be the definitive work on general decompilation from binary files. You can download the thesis from Cristina Cifuentes' page, as a compressed postscript file (474K). This work draws heavily on standard forward engineering techniques such as data flow analysis, applied to decompilation. Similarly, graph techniques are used to restructure the generated code into standard loops, conditional statements, and other high level constructs. Type recovery is limited to built-in types (no arrays or structures). Cristina demonstrated her techniques in a research prototype called dcc.

After her PhD, Cristina worked for some years on Binary Translation, for example see the UQBT page. Cristina is currently associate advisor for Mike Van Emmerik's current PhD research, also on decompilation.

DECLER Decompiler, 1995

DECLER [ DRM95 ], [ Zong96 ], [ CL00 ] is a five stage decompiler, based on 8086C and 68000C. The stages are disassembler, library function recogniser, symbolic executer, "AB transformer", and "C transformer". The AB transformer appears to be a formal transformation system that recovers types as a side effect. The C transformer is the structuring back end.

University of Queensland Binary Translator, 1997-2001

The University of Queensland Binary Translator (UQBT), 1997-2001 . This Binary Translator uses a standard C compiler as the "back end"; in other words, it emits C source code. However, this is not the same as a decompiler, where the goal is human readable high level code. As a result, UQBT can't be used in any of the applications that come under the heading of "comprehension aid" or "maintainable code". Work on UQBT was not completed, however it was capable of producing low level source code for moderate sized programs, such as the smaller SPEC benchmarks [ CVE00, CVEU+99 ].

A. Mycroft's Type Reconstruction for Decompilation, 1999

One of the hardest problems to solve in decompilation is that of recovering high-level data types from machine code in a correct way. Such types include structures, arrays and more. In this work, Alan Mycroft presents a system for infering high-level types from assembler-based (RTL) code [ Mycr99 ]. Alan's type inference system is based on Milner's work for ML. The paper presents a type system, the constraints on types and worked-through examples that include structures and arrays as part of their output. Experimental results for the system are not available.

This is the best type system that I am aware of that currently deals with recoverying high-level data types in a machine-independent way, as it is based on RTLs and makes no unreasonable assumptions on the shape of the RTLs. Implementation results are needed in order to determine how feasible this system is in real practice.

History Of Decompilation 1 (1960-1979)
History Of Decompilation 3 (2000-present)


C.R. Hollander. Decompilation of Object Programs. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Computer Science, January 1973.

B.C. Housel. A Study of Decompiling Machine Languages into High-Level Machine Independent Languages. PhD dissertation, Purdue University, Computer Science, August 1973.

B.C. Housel and M.H. Halstead. A methodology for machine language decompilation. Technical Report RJ 1316 (#20557), Purdue University, Department of Computer Science, December 1973.

P. Barbe. The Piler system of computer program translation. Technical report, Probe Consultants Inc., September 1974.

F.L. Friedman. Decompilation and the Transfer of Mini-Computer Operating Systems. PhD dissertation, Purdue University, Computer Science, August 1974.

B.S. Baker. An algorithm for structuring flowgraphs. Journal of the ACM, 24(1):98-120, January 1977.

D.L. Brinkley. Intercomputer transportation of assembly language software through decompilation. Technical report, Naval Underwater Systems Center, October 1981.

M.N. Bert and L. Petrone. Decompiling context-free languages from their Polish-like representations. pages 35-57, 1981.

R.H. Katz and E. Wong. Decompiling CODASYL DML into relational queries. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 7(1):1-23, March 1982.

L.M. Dorsey and S.Y. Su. The decompilation of COBOL-DML programs for the purpose of program conversion. In Proceedings of COMPSAC 82. IEEE Computer Society's Sixth International Computer Software and Applications Conference, pages 495-504, Chicago, USA, November 1982. IEEE.

R. Dudley. A recursive decompiler. FORTH Dimensions, 4(2):28, Jul-Aug 1982.

N.L. Hills and D. Moines. Revisited: Recursive decompiler. FORTH Dimensions, 5(6):16-18, Mar-Apr 1984.

C.W. Yoo. An approach to the transportation of computer software. Information Processing Letters, 21:153-157, September 1985.

W. May. A simple decompiler. Dr.Dobb's Journal, pages 50-52, June 1988.

J. Reuter. Formerly available from ftp://ftp.cs.washington.edu/pub/decomp.tar.Z. Public domain software, 1988. Now downloadable from the DecompDecompiler page.

Liu Zongtian and Zhu Yifen, The Application of the Symbolic Execution to the 68000 C Anti-compiler, Chinese Journal of Computers, 11(10):633-637, 1988.

M. Ward, "Proving Program Refinements and Transformations", Oxford University, PhD Thesis, 1989.

S. Guthery. exe2c. News item in comp.compilers USENET newsgroup, 30 Apr 1990.

S. Guthery. exe2c. News item in comp.compilers USENET newsgroup, 23 Apr 1991.

J. Reuter. Private communication. Email, 1991.

Austin Code Works. exe2c. Beta release, 1991. Email: info@acw.com.

J.P. Bowen, P.T. Breuer, and K.C. Lano. The REDO project: Final report. Technical Report PRG-TR-23-91, Oxford University Computing Laboratory, 11 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QD, December 1991.

J. Bowen and P. Breuer. Decompilation techniques. Internal to ESPRIT REDO project no. 2487 2487-TN-PRG-1065 Version 1.2, Oxford University Computing Laboratory, 11 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QD, March 1991.

J. Bowen. From programs to object code using logic and logic programming. In R. Giegerich and S.L. Graham, editors, Code Generation - Concepts, Tools, Techniques, Workshops in Computing, pages 173-192, Dagstuhl, German

S.T. Hood. Decompiling with definite clause grammars. Technical Report ERL-0571-RR, Electronics Research Laboratory, DSTO Australia, PO Box 1600, Salisbury, South Australia 5108, September 1991.

L. Hungmong, L. Zongtian, and Z. Yifen. Design and implementation of the intermediate language in a PC decompiler system. Mini-Micro Systems, 12(2):23-28,46, 1991.

C. Fuan and L. Zongtian. C function recognition technique and its implementation in 8086 C decompiling system. Mini-Micro Systems, 12(11):33-40,47, 1991.

S. Guthery. Private communication. Austin Code Works, 11100 Leafwood Lane, Austin, TX 78750-3587, 14 Dec 1991.

J. O'Gorman. Systematic Decompilation. PhD Thesis. Technical Report UL-CSIS-91-12, University of Limerick, 1991. URL: ftp://www.csis.ul.ie/techrpts/ul-91-12.ps

P.T. Breuer and J.P. Bowen. Decompilation: The enumeration of types and grammars. Technical Report PRG-TR-11-92, Oxford University Computing Laboratory, 11 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QD, 1992.

J. Bowen. From programs to object code and back again using logic programming: Compilation and decompilation. Journal of Software Maintenance: Research and Practice. 5(4):205-234, 1993.

P.T. Breuer and J.P. Bowen. Decompilation: the enumeration of types and grammars. Transaction of Programming Languages and Systems, 1993.

J. Bowen, P. Breuer, and K. Lano. A compendium of formal techniques for software maintenance. Software Engineering Journal, pages 253-262, September 1993.

D.J. Pavey and L.A. Winsborrow. Demonstrating equivalence of source code and PROM contents. The Computer Language, 36(7):654-667, 1993.

C. Fuan, L. Zongtian, and L. Li. Design and implementation techniques of the 8086 C decompiling system. Mini-Micro Systems, 14(4):10-18,31, 1993. Chinese language.

P.T. Breuer and J.P. Bowen. Generating decompilers. Information and Software Technology Journal, 1994.

R.L. Sites, A. Chernoff, M.B. Kirk, M.P. Marks, and S.G. Robinson. Binary translation. Communications of the ACM, 36(2):69-81, February 1993.

C. Cifuentes. Reverse Compilation Techniques. PhD Dissertation. Queensland University of Technology, Department of Computing Science, 1994.

DECLER User Guide and Reference Manual. Microcomputer Institute, Hefei University of Technology, 1995.3.

Liu Zongtian. DECLER: the C Lanuage Decompilation System. Microelectronics and Computer, 17(5):1-3.

A. Mycroft. Type-Based Decompilation. Proceedings of ESOP'99, LNCS 1576, Springer-Verlag, 1999.

M. P. Ward. Assembler to C Migration using the FermaT Transformation System. Proceedings of ACSM'99, pp67-76.

C. Cifuentes, M. Van Emmerik, D. Ung, D. Simon, and T. Waddington. Preliminary experiences with the use of the UQBT binary translation framework. In Proc. Workshop on Binary Translation, Newport Beach, pages 12-22. Technical Committee on Technical Architecture Newsletter, IEEE CS-Press, Dec 1999.

Kaiming Chen, Zongtian Liu, Recognition and Recovery of Switch Structure in Decompilation System, Mini-Micro Systems, 21(12):1279-1281, 2001. Chinese language.

C. Cifuentes and M. Van Emmerik. UQBT: Adaptable Binary Translation at low cost. Computer 33(3) pages 60-66, March 2000.

M. P. Ward. Pigs from Sausages? Reengineering from Assembler to C via FermaT Transformation. White paper, http://www.smltd.com/migration-t.pdf, April 2003. Published in Science of Computer Programming Special Issue: Transformations Everywhere 52(1-3):213-255, 2004.

Portions Copyright 1998 Cristina Cifuentes, All Rights Reserved.